Atoms bond to form crystals in four ways:

Ionic Bonding.

Metallic Bonding.

Covalent Bonding.

Van Der Waals Bonding.

The Ionic Bond is the most common in the mineral kingdom.  This type of crystal is usually brittle and pale in colour. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity, but is very symmetrical in shape. This symmetry is caused by the arrangements. Ions are electricity charged atoms that draw other ions of opposite charge to them. The stronger the charge the stronger the crystal. Examples are Halite, and Periclase.

The bonding effect between an ion and its environment extend spherically in all directions.

                                                 Electron exchange in ionic bonding.

In this diagram of Halite atoms, the red ions are positive, and the green, negative. As this pattern spreads throughout the crystal in every direction, we expect to see a high degree of symmetry in the overall crystal.

Copyright © Crystal Gateways 2005 – 2012. Amanda and Francis Moloney.


Needless it should be to say, but said it must be: Nothing written on this website should be considered before professional medical advice in the case of any medical condition whatsoever. And, only an idiot, or a complete curmudgeon would believe otherwise!


Please feel free to use excerpts and links from this original copyright material on the provision that you have natural good manners and say where you got it:
Francis Moloney@

© Crystal Gateways 2012

Author: amras888

Francis Moloney @Amras888 Composer, instrumentalist and Logic 8 software user. Bereavement Counselor retired. A Philosopher now disabled, bedbound but happy. Love my wife, son, and dog.

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